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Replicates following removal of recombinant sequence fragments by a blinded fully exploratory screen for recombination using RDP3. Black squares at the end of the branches represent the gag and nef sequences sampled from Cameroon in this study, while red squares represent intragene recombinant fragments in our samples. The gag tree was rooted using HIV-1 group N, O, P and SIV CPZ isolates, while t
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Issecting the earliest evolutionary steps in the emergence of HIV-1M. Keywords: HIV-1 diversity, West central Africa, RDP3, Maximum likelihood, PHYMLFindings The Congo basin in west central Africa is thought to be the origin of HIV, where several cross-species transmission events from chimpanzees to humans occurred [1,2]. Cameroon, located in this region, has one of the most genetically diverse HI
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Itada M, Kitagawa H, Igarashi K, Hirose S, Kanakubo Y: Polyamine lowered the hepatic lipid peroxide level in rats. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1988, 62:235-249. Merentie M, Uimari A, Pietil?M, Sinervirta R, Kein en TA, Veps nen J, Khomutov A, Grigorenko N, Herzig KH, J ne J, Alhonen L: Oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of activated polyamine catabolism-induced acute pancr
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Ck squares at the end of the branches represent the nef sequences sampled from Cameroon in this study, while red squares represent intragene recombinant fragments in our samples. Abbreviations HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus; CRF: Circulating recombinant form; URF: Unique recombinant form; RNA: Ribonucleic acid; PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction. Competing interests The authors declare that they ha
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Type 1: subtype G is a circulating recombinant form. J Virol 2007, 81:8543?551.doi:10.1186/1743-422X-10-29 Cite this article as: Tongo et al.: Characterization of HIV-1 gag and nef in Cameroon: further evidence of extreme diversity at the origin of the HIV-1 group M epidemic. Virology Journal 2013 10:29.Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central and take full advantage of:?Convenient online sub
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Hat three clones ZK1, ZK2 and ZK6 were obtained by limiting dilution and further characterized. Our PCR genotyping results verified these three clones, ZK1, ZK2 and ZK6 are MARCO-/- and SR-AI/ II-/--deficient (Fig. 1). These cell lines are able to grow rapidly in RPMI or DMEM complete media in the absence of exogenous M-CSF or other growth factors, and their doubling time is 12?6 h on the average
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L antibodies made also rapidly clear to the clinicians that a reliable predictive factor for outcome was, in fact, lacking [3-7]. The introduction of K-RAS mutational status analysis allowed a reliable selection of resistant patients (i.e. those with mutated K-RAS). However not all K-RAS wildtype cases were also responders to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. This observation made the need for furt
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Lightly the uptake of fluorescent latex beads by ZK1 cells (Fig. 6B). Furthermore, to determine whether the size of dextran sulfate molecules alters the effect on ZK1 cells' uptake of latex beads, we tested different sizes of DS in the binding/phagocytosis assay. The results indicated thatonly dextran sulfate with smaller molecular weight (5-8kDa) inhibited binding, whereas larger 100-500-kDa dext

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